Morse Code Definition

Letter Code Letter Code
A •- N -•
B -••• O ---
C -•-• P •--•
D -•• Q --•-
E R •-•
F ••-• S •••
G --• T -
H •••• U ••-
I •• V •••-
J •--- W •--
K -•- X -••-
L •-•• Y -•--
M -- Z --••
Number Code
0 -----
1 •----
2 ••---
3 •••--
4 ••••-
5 •••••
6 -••••
7 --•••
8 ---••
9 ----•
Name Code Character
Period •-•-•- .
Comma --••-- ,
Question Mark ••--•• ?
Equal Sign -•••- =
Hyphen -••••- -
Forward Slash -••-• /
at sign •--•-• @



Special symbols (prosigns)

Prosigns are dot/dash sequences that have a special meaning. They are composed of two Morse code alphabetic characters "run together"; that is, that omit the normal pause that would occur if they were being sent as two letters of text. They are normally represented in print by the two letters, often with a ligating bar above them.


 AR  •-•-•  Stop (end of message), often written +
 AS  •-•••  Wait (for 10 s), respond with C (yes)
            AS2 means wait 2 min, AS5 5 mins, etc
            For pauses of 10 min or longer, you must use 
            QRX (see "Q" code definitions)
 K   -•-    Invitation to transmit
            (normally follows AR to indicate 'back-to-you')
 SK  •••-•- End (end of contact), sometimes written VA
 BT  -•••-  Separator, sometimes written =
 SN  •••-•  Understood

Not really prosigns, an error may be indicated by any of:

 ••••••• Error, correct word follows (defined to be any letter 
           with at least six or more dots in a row)
 • • •   Error (unofficial)
 •• ••   (same)


Non-English extensions to the Morse code

 å  •--•-
 ä  •-•-
 à  •--•- (also å)
 é  ••-••
 ch ----
 ö  ---•
 ü  ••--
 "  •-••-•
 !  ••--•
 ß  •••--••


Commonly used Morse code abbreviations

Abbreviations differ from prosigns in that they observe normal interletter spacing; that is, they are not "run together" the way prosigns are.

 AA    All after (used after question mark to request a repetition)
 AB    All before (similarly)
 ARRL  American Radio Relay League
 ABT   About
 ADS   Address
 AGN   Again
 ANT   Antenna
 BN    All between
 BK    Break (to pause transmission of a message, say)
 BUG   Semiautomatic key
 C     Yes
 CBA   Callbook address
 CFM   Confirm
 CLG   Calling
 CQ    Calling any station
 CS    Callsign
 CUL   See you later
 CUZ   Because
 CW    Continuous wave
 CX    Conditions
 DE    From
 DX    Distance (sometimes refers to long distance contact)
 ES    And
 FB    Fine business (Analogous to "OK")
 FCC   Federal Communications Commission
 FER   For
 FM    From
 FREQ  Frequency
 GA    Good afternoon or Go ahead (depending on context)
 GE    Good evening
 GM    Good morning
 GND   Ground (ground potential)
 GUD   Good
 HI    Laughter
 HR    Here
 HV    Have
 LID   Poor operator
 MILS  Milliamperes
 NIL   Nothing
 NR    Number
 OB    Old boy
 OC    Old chap
 OM    Old man (any male amateur radio operator is an OM)
 OO    Official Observer
 OP    Operator
 OT    Old timer
 OTC   Old timers club
 OOTC  Old old timers club
 PSE   Please
 PWR   Power
 QCWA  Quarter Century Wireless Association
 R     I acknowledge or decimal point (depending on context)
 RCVR  Receiver
 RPT   Repeat or report (depending on context)
 RST   Signal report format (Readability-Signal Strength-Tone)
 RTTY  Radioteletype
 RX    Receive
 SAE   Self addressed envelope
 SASE  Self addressed, stamped envelope
 SED   Said
 SEZ   Says
 SIG   Signal
 SIGS  Signals
 SKED  Schedule
 SN    Soon
 SOS   international distress call
 SRI   Sorry
 STN   Station
 TEMP  Temperature
 TMW   Tomorrow
 TNX   Thanks
 TU    Thank you
 TX    Transmit
 U     You
 UR    Your or you're (depending on context)
 URS   Yours
 VY    Very
 WDS   Words
 WKD   Worked
 WL    Will
 WUD   Would
 WX    Weather
 XMTR  Transmitter
 XYL   Wife
 YL    Young lady (used of any female)
 73    Best regards
 88    Love and kisses
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